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General, Organic, & Biological Chemistry

9781260085181 248x300

Author: Janice Smith

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education

Publish Date: 02 Jan 2018

ISBN-13: 9781260085181

Pages: 304

File Type: PDF

Language: English



This text is different–by design. By relating fundamental concepts of general, organic, and biological chemistry to the everyday world, Jan Smith effectively engages students with bulleted lists, extensive illustrations, and step-by-step problem solving. Smith writes with an approach that delivers need-to-know information in a succinct style for today’s students. Armed with an excellent illustration program full of macro-to-micro art, as well as many applications to biological, medical, consumer, and environmental topics, this book is a powerhouse of learning for students.
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About the Author

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Matter and Measurement 1.1 Chemistry-The Science of Everyday Experience 1.2 States of Matter 1.3 Classification of Matter 1.4 Measurement 1.5 Significant Figures 1.6 Scientific Notation 1.7 Problem Solving Using Conversion Factors 1.8 Focus on Health and Medicine: Problem Solving Using Clinical Conversion Factors 1.9 Temperature 1.10 Density and Specific GravityChapter 2: Atoms and the Periodic Table 2.1 Elements 2.2 Structure of the Atom 2.3 Isotopes 2.4 The Periodic Table 2.5 Electronic Structure 2.6 Electronic Configurations 2.7 Valence Electrons 2.8 Periodic TrendsChapter 3: Ionic Compounds 3.1 Introduction to Bonding 3.2 Ions 3.3 Ionic Compounds 3.4 Naming Ionic Compounds 3.5 Physical Properties of Ionic Compounds 3.6 Polyatomic IonsChapter 4: Covalent Compounds 4.1 Introduction to Covalent Bonding 4.2 Lewis Structures 4.3 Exceptions to the Octet Rule 4.4 Resonance 4.5 Naming Covalent Compounds 4.6 Molecular Shape 4.7 Electronegativity and Bond Polarity 4.8 Polarity of Molecules 4.9 Focus on Health and Medicine: Covalent Drugs and Medical ProductsChapter 5: Chemical Reactions 5.1 Introduction to Chemical Reactions 5.2 Balancing Chemical Equations5.3 Types of Reactions 5.4 Oxidation and Reduction5.5 The Mole and Avogadro’s Number 5.6 Mass to Mole Conversions 5.7 Mole Calculations in Chemical Equations 5.8 Mass Calculations in Chemical Equations 5.9 Percent Yield 5.10 Limiting Reactants Chapter 6: Energy Changes, Reaction Rates, and Equilibrium 6.1 Energy 6.2 Energy Changes in Reactions 6.3 Energy Diagrams 6.4 Reaction Rates 6.5 Equilibrium 6.6 Le Chatelier’s Principle 6.7 Focus on the Human Body: Body TemperatureChapter 7: Gases, Liquids, and Solids 7.1 The Three States of Matter 7.2 Gases and Pressure 7.3 Gas Laws That Relate Pressure, Volume, and Temperature 7.4 Avogadro’s Law-How Volume and Moles Are Related 7.5 The Ideal Gas Law 7.6 Dalton’s Law and Partial Pressures 7.7 Intermolecular Forces, Boiling Point, and Melting Point 7.8 The Liquid State 7.9 The Solid State7.10 Specific Heat 7.11 Energy and Phase Changes 7.12 Heating and Cooling CurvesChapter 8: Solutions 8.1 Mixtures8.2 Electrolytes and Nonelectrolytes 8.3 Solubility-General Features 8.4 Solubility-Effects of Temperature and Pressure 8.5 Concentration Units-Percent Concentration 8.6 Concentration Units-Molarity 8.7 Dilution 8.8 Colligative Properties 8.9 Osmosis and DialysisChapter 9: Acids and Bases 9.1 Introduction to Acids and Bases 9.2 The Reaction of a Bronsted-Lowry Acid with a Bronsted-Lowry Base 9.3 Acid and Base Strength 9.4 Equilibrium and Acid Dissociation Constants 9.5 Dissociation of Water 9.6 The pH Scale 9.7 Common Acid-Base Reactions 9.8 The Acidity and Basicity of Salt Solutions 9.9 Titration 9.10 Buffers 9.11 Focus on the Human Body: Buffers in the BloodChapter 10: Nuclear Chemistry 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Nuclear Reactions 10.3 Half-Life 10.4 Detecting and Measuring Radiation 10.5 Focus on Health and Medicine: Medical Uses of Radioisotopes 10.6 Nuclear Fission and Nuclear Fusion 10.7 Focus on Health and Medicine: Medical Imaging Without RadioactivityChapter 11: Introduction to Organic Molecules and Functional Groups 11.1 Introduction to Organic Chemistry 11.2 Characteristic Features of Organic Compounds 11.3 Shapes of Organic Molecules 11.4 Drawing Organic Molecules 11.5 Functional Groups 11.6 Properties of Organic Compounds 11.7 Focus on Health and Medicine: VitaminsChapter 12: Alkanes 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Simple Alkanes 12.3 An Introduction to Nomenclature 12.4 Alkane Nomenclature 12.5 Cycloalkanes 12.6 Focus on the Environment-Fossil Fuels 12.7 Physical Properties 12.8 Focus on the Environment: Combustion12.9 Halogenation of AlkanesChapter 13: Unsaturated Hydrocarbons 13.1 Alkenes and Alkynes 13.2 Nomenclature of Alkenes and Alkynes 13.3 Cis-Trans Isomers 13.4 Interesting Alkenes in Food and Medicine 13.5 Focus on Health and Medicine: Oral Contraceptives 13.6 Reactions of Alkenes 13.7 Focus on Health and Medicine: Margarine or Butter? 13.8 Polymers-The Fabric of Modern Society 13.9 Aromatic Compounds 13.10 Nomenclature of Benzene Derivatives 13.11 Focus on Health and Medicine: Aromatic Drugs, Sunscreens, and Carcinogens 13.12 Focus on Health and Medicine: Phenols and Antioxidants 13.13 Reactions of Aromatic CompoundsChapter 14: Organic Compounds that Contain Oxygen, Halogen, or Sulfur 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Structure and Properties of Alcohols 14.3 Nomenclature of Alcohols 14.4 Interesting Alcohols 14.5 Reactions of Alcohols 14.6 Focus on Health and Medicine: Ethanol, the Most Widely Abused Drug 14.7 Structure and Properties of Ethers 14.8 Focus on Health and Medicine: Ethers as Anesthetics 14.9 Alkyl Halides 14.10 Organic Compounds That Contain SulfurChapter 15: The Three-Dimensional Shape of Molecules 15.1 Isomers-A Review 15.2 Looking Glass Chemistry-Molecules and Their Mirror Images 15.3 Chirality Centers 15.4 Chirality Centers in Cyclic Compounds 15.5 Focus on Health and Medicine: Chiral Drugs 15.6 Fischer Projections 15.7 Optical Activity 15.8 Compounds With Two or More Chirality Centers 15.9 Focus on the Human Body: The Sense of SmellChapter 16: Aldehydes and Ketones 16.1 Structure and Bonding 16.2 Nomenclature 16.3 Physical Properties 16.4 Focus on Health and Medicine: Interesting Aldehydes and Ketones 16.5 Reactions of Aldehydes and Ketones 16.6 Reduction of Aldehydes and Ketones 16.7 Focus on the Human Body: The Chemistry of Vision 16.8 Acetal FormationChapter 17: Carboxylic Acids, Esters, and Amides 17.1 Structure and Bonding 17.2 Nomenclature 17.3 Physical Properties 17.4 Interesting Carboxylic Acids in Consumer Products and Medicines 17.5 Interesting Esters and Amides 17.6 The Acidity of Carboxylic Acids 17.7 Focus on Health and Medicine: Aspirin 17.8 The Conversion of Carboxylic Acids to Esters and Amides 17.9 Hydrolysis of Esters and Amides 17.10 Synthetic Polymers in Modern Society-Polyamides and Polyesters 17.11 Focus on Health and Medicine: PenicillinChapter 18: Amines and Neurotransmitters 18.1 Structure and Bonding 18.2 Nomenclature 18.3 Physical Properties 18.4 Focus on Health and Medicine: Caffeine and Nicotine 18.5 Alkaloids-Amines from Plant Sources 18.6 Amines as Bases 18.7 Focus on Health and Medicine: Ammonium Salts as Useful Drugs 18.8 Neurotransmitters 18.9 Focus on the Human Body: Epinephrine and Related Compounds 18.10 Focus on Health and Medicine: Histamines and AntihistaminesChapter 19: Lipids 19.1 Introduction to Lipids 19.2 Fatty Acids 19.3 Waxes 19.4 Triacylglycerols-Fats and Oils 19.5 Hydrolysis of Triacylglycerols 19.6 Phospholipids 19.7 Cell Membranes 19.8 Focus on Health and Medicine: Cholesterol, the Most Prominent Steroid 19.9 Steroid Hormones 19.10 Focus on Health and Medicine: Fat-Soluble Vitamins 19.11 Focus on Health and Medicine: Prostaglandins and LeukotrienesChapter 20: Carbohydrates 20.1 Introduction 20.2 Monosaccharides 20.3 The Cyclic Forms of Monosaccharides 20.4 Reduction and Oxidation of Monosaccharides 20.5 Disaccharides 20.6 Polysaccharides 20.7 Focus on the Human Body: Useful Carbohydrate Derivatives 20.8 Focus on the Human Body: Blood TypesChapter 21: Amino Acids, Proteins, and Enzymes 21.1 Introduction 21.2 Amino Acids 21.3 Acid-Base Behavior of Amino Acids 21.4 Peptides 21.5 Focus on the Human Body: Biologically Active Peptides 21.6 Proteins 21.7 Focus on the Human Body: Common Proteins 21.8 Protein Hydrolysis and Denaturation 21.9 Enzymes21.10 How Enzymes Work 21.11 Focus on Health and Medicine: Using Enzymes to Diagnose and Treat DiseaseChapter 22: Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis 22.1 Nucleosides and Nucleotides 22.2 Nucleic Acids 22.3 The DNA Double Helix 22.4 Replication 22.5 RNA 22.6 Transcription 22.7 Genetic Code 22.8 Translation and Protein Synthesis 22.9 Mutations and Genetic Diseases 22.10 Recombinant DNA 22.11 Focus on Health and Medicine: VirusesChapter 23: Digestion and the Conversion of Food into Energy 23.1 Introduction 23.2 An Overview of Metabolism 23.3 ATP and Energy Production 23.4 Coenzymes in Metabolism 23.5 The Citric Acid Cycle 23.6 The Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation 23.7 Focus on Health and Medicine: Hydrogen CyanideChapter 24: Carbohydrate, Lipid, and Protein Metabolism 24.1 Introduction 24.2 Understanding Biochemical Reactions 24.3 Glycolysis 24.4 The Fate of Pyruvate 24.5 The ATP Yield from Glucose 24.6 Gluconeogenesis 24.7 The Catabolism of Triacylglycerols 24.8 Ketone Bodies 24.9 Amino Acid MetabolismONLINE Chapter 25: Body Fluids25.1 Types of Body Fluids25.2 Composition of the Blood25.3 The Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide25.4 Buffers in the Body25.5 The Blood-Brain Barrier25.6 The Role of the Kidneys
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